SIXTH MATHEMATICS ASSESSMENT  
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National Assessment of Educational Progress c. 1997  
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Markovits and Sowder (1991) (as reported by Sowder [1995]) found in a 1991 study that most middlegrades children were unsuccessful with a set of tasks that mixed fraction and decimal notation. Item 7, shown in detail in table 5.14, was answered correctly by only half of the twelfthgrade students. The item had at least three features that may have made it especially difficult: It used a mix of decimal and fraction notation in the prompt, it involved a number line that was two units long, and it also had three segments per unit, while asking the student to locate a decimal with an understood denominator of 100.  
References  
Markovits, Zvia, and Judith Sowder. "Students Understanding of the Relationship between Fractions and Decimals." Focus on Learning Problems in Mathematics 13 (January 1991): 311.
Sowder, Judith T. "Instructing for Rational Number Sense." In Providing a Foundation for Teaching Mathematics in the Middle Grades, pp. 1529. Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York (SUNY) Press, 1995. 
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